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Michael Novakhov - SharedNewsLinks℠

How the Novavax Covid-19 Vaccine Works

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The Maryland-based company Novavax has developed a protein-based coronavirus vaccine called NVX-CoV2373. The vaccine produced strikingly high levels of antibodies in early clinical trials. In September, the vaccine entered a Phase 3 clinical trial in the United Kingdom, and another one in the United States at the end of December. Those trials will show whether the vaccine is safe and effective.

Coronavirus Proteins

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is studded with proteins that it uses to enter human cells. These so-called spike proteins make a tempting target for potential vaccines and treatments.

The Novavax vaccine works by teaching the immune system to make antibodies to the spike protein.

Growing Spike Proteins

To create their vaccine, Novavax researchers started with a modified spike gene. They inserted the gene into a different virus, called a baculovirus, and allowed it to infect insect cells. The infected cells produced spike proteins that spontaneously joined together to form spikes, as they do on the surface of the coronavirus.

Three spike

proteins combine

Three spike

proteins combine

Three spike

proteins combine

Three spike

proteins combine

Three spike

proteins combine

Three spike

proteins combine

A similar method of growing and harvesting virus proteins is already used to make licensed vaccines for diseases including influenza and HPV.

Building Nanoparticles

The researchers harvested the spike proteins from the insect cells and assembled them into nanoparticles. While the nanoparticles mimicked the molecular structure of the coronavirus, they could not replicate or cause Covid-19.

Nanoparticle

studded with

spikes

Nanoparticle

studded with

spikes

Nanoparticle

studded with

spikes

Presenting the Spike

The vaccine is injected into the muscles of the arm. Each injection includes many spike nanoparticles, along with a compound extracted from the soapbark tree. The compound attracts immune cells to the site of the injection and causes them to respond more strongly to the nanoparticles.

Immunity-priming

compound

Immunity-priming

compound

Spotting the Intruder

Immune cells called antigen-presenting cells encounter the vaccine nanoparticles and take them up.

Presenting

spike protein

fragments

Presenting

spike protein

fragments

Presenting

spike protein

fragments

An antigen-presenting cell tears apart the spike proteins and displays some of their fragments on its surface. A so-called helper T cell may detect the fragments. If a fragment fits into one of its surface proteins, the T cell becomes activated. Now it can recruit other immune cells to respond to the vaccine.

Making Antibodies

Another type of immune cell, called a B cell, may also encounter the vaccine nanoparticles. B cells have surface proteins in a huge variety of shapes, and a few might have the right shape to latch onto a spike protein. If a B cell does latch on, it can pull the vaccine particle inside and present spike protein fragments on its surface.

If a helper T cell activated against the spike protein latches onto one of these fragments, it activates the B cell. Now the B cell proliferates and pours out antibodies that have the same shape as its surface proteins.

Matching

surface proteins

Matching

surface proteins

Matching

surface proteins

Matching

surface proteins

Matching

surface proteins

Matching

surface proteins

Matching

surface

proteins

Matching

surface

proteins

Matching

surface

proteins

Matching

surface proteins

Matching

surface proteins

Matching

surface proteins

Stopping the Coronavirus

If vaccinated people are later exposed to the coronavirus, their antibodies can lock onto the spike proteins. The coronavirus cannot enter cells, and the infection is blocked.

Killing Infected Cells

The Novavax vaccine can also trigger another kind of protection by destroying infected cells. When a coronavirus invades, infected cells put fragments of its spike protein on their surface. Antigen-presenting cells can activate a type of immune cell called a killer T cell. It can recognize coronavirus-infected cells and destroy them before they have a chance to produce new viruses.

Presenting a

spike protein

fragment

Beginning

to kill the

infected cell

Presenting a

spike protein

fragment

Beginning

to kill the

infected cell

Presenting a

spike protein

fragment

Beginning

to kill the

infected cell

Presenting a

spike protein

fragment

Beginning to kill

the infected cell

Presenting a

spike protein

fragment

Beginning to kill

the infected cell

Presenting a

spike protein

fragment

Beginning to kill

the infected cell

Presenting a

spike protein

fragment

Beginning to kill

the infected cell

Presenting a

spike protein

fragment

Beginning to kill

the infected cell

Presenting a

spike protein

fragment

Beginning to kill

the infected cell

Presenting a

spike protein

fragment

Beginning to kill

the infected cell

Presenting a

spike protein

fragment

Beginning to kill

the infected cell

Presenting a

spike protein

fragment

Beginning to kill

the infected cell

Remembering the Virus

Novavax’s vaccine would be easier to distribute and store than the vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna. While those vaccines have to be kept frozen, NVX-CoV2373 can stay stable for up to three months in a refrigerator. But if the vaccine does turn out to be effective, scientists won’t know for sure how long it provides protection.

Second dose

21 days later

Second dose

21 days later

Second dose

21 days later

If it works like protein-based vaccines for other diseases, it may create a group of special cells called memory B cells and memory T cells. These cells will retain information about the coronavirus for years or even decades, enabling a quick counterattack in response to a new infection.

Vaccine Timeline

January, 2020 Novavax begins work on a coronavirus vaccine.

A screen showing protein structures at a Novavax lab in Maryland.Andrew Caballero-Reynolds/Agence France-Presse

May Novavax launches clinical trials for their vaccine.

July The U.S. government awards Novavax $1.6 billion to support the vaccine’s clinical trials and manufacturing.

August Novavax launched a Phase 2 trial on 2,900 people in South Africa.

Preparing an injection in Johannesburg, South Africa.Joao Silva/The New York Times

September Novavax launches a Phase 3 trial with up to 15,000 volunteers in the United Kingdom. The trial is expected to deliver results in early 2021.

Dec. 28 Novavax launches a Phase 3 trial with 30,000 people in the United States. The trial had been delayed because of problems with manufacturing the doses required for the study.

2021 If its clinical trials succeed, Novavax expects to deliver 100 million doses for use in the United States in 2021.


Sources: National Center for Biotechnology Information; Nature Reviews Immunology; Science; Maria Elena Bottazzi, Baylor College of Medicine.

Tracking the Coronavirus


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Timeline: 2020, the year of the coronavirus

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The year began with the spread of the novel coronavirus in China’s Hubei province. In the months that followed, the virus swept around the world, disrupting life nearly everywhere, leaving sorrow in its wake.

As 2020 comes to a close, the pandemic has not abated, but mass vaccination campaigns now underway spell the early beginnings of an end now possible to foretell — more imminent for some countries than for others.

Major coronavirus news bookended the year. An onslaught of developments punctuated the intervening months, each event often eclipsing the one before it. Here is a look back at some of the key moments that held the world’s attention as the pandemic unfolded.

Security guards in Wuhan, China, on Jan. 11. (Noel Celis/AFP/Getty Images)

At the beginning of January, as the busy Lunar New Year travel season approached, concerns begin to percolate about a pneumonia-like virus thought to be linked to an animal market in Wuhan. The unidentified illness has afflicted dozens, according to health officials, but it’s not yet clear how it spreads, or how contagious it is. Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Thailand and the Philippines announce plans to scan travelers for symptoms and set up quarantine zones.

A staff member in a temporary hospital in Wuhan on March 8. (AFP/Getty Images)

Cases in Wuhan, a city of more than 11 million, continue to climb. Officials scramble to contain and learn about the outbreak, which had taken the lives of at least nine people in all of China, by imposing quarantine measures and rules on travel from the city.

By the end of the month, Chinese authorities had imposed a strict lockdown affecting more than 30 million people. Holed-up Wuhan residents experience cabin fever, while the rest of the world looks on with trepidation, at early inklings of what the future might hold.

The virus has already traveled far.

A resident of Snohomish County, Wash., in his 30s returns from a trip to Hubei province on Jan. 15. After landing in Seattle he starts to feel ill. He is confirmed as the first known coronavirus case in the United States. Experts later determine that the virus was spreading undetected and uncontrolled early on.

A portrait of Li Wenliang, an eye doctor, at his hospital in Wuhan on Feb. 7. (Getty Images)

Li Wenliang, a Chinese doctor based in Wuhan who spoke out about the threat of the virus long before Chinese authorities were willing to acknowledge it, dies of the coronavirus on Feb. 6.

The 34-year-old ophthalmologist had been detained by Chinese officials on Jan. 1 for “rumor mongering.”

In death, he becomes a national icon, celebrated by Chinese social media users amid frustration over the government’s murky messaging.

A discarded mask in Washington on March 30. (Ricky Carioti/The Washington Post)

“If you are healthy, you only need to wear a mask if you are taking care of a person with suspected #coronavirus infection,” the World Health Organization tweets on March 1, as the virus rages in Asia and begins to spread through Europe.

In the United States, health officials give similar advice.

“One of the things [people] shouldn’t be doing, the general public, is going out and buying masks,” said U.S. Surgeon General Jerome Adams. “It actually does not help, and it has not been proven to be effective in preventing the spread of coronavirus amongst the general public.”

The comments come as some countries, including the United States, face mask shortages for front-line workers. Health officials eventually backtrack and recommend fabric face coverings to block respiratory droplets in public. But the confusing advice sets the stage for masks to become a divisive issue in the United States.

Milan on March 10. (Antonio Calanni/AP)

As cases and deaths soar in northern Italy, Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte announces a lockdown affecting about 16 million people. The restrictions mark the toughest steps taken outside of China. Other countries in Europe, including Spain and France, follow with their own shutdowns.

In Italy, hospital beds fill with coronavirus patients. Doctors fall ill. Medical students matriculate early and health-care workers come out of retirement to fill staffing gaps. The world watches for lessons on what major outbreaks outside China might look like and how governments might respond.

For nearly two months, Italians are confined to their homes, raising questions about how far Western democracies can go in their restriction of civil liberties for public health purposes.

World Health Organization Director General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus in Geneva on March 11. (Fabrice Coffrini/AFP/Getty Images)

With more than 118,000 cases in 114 countries and 4,291 people dead, the WHO declares the coronavirus a pandemic.

“We are deeply concerned both by the alarming levels of spread and severity and by the alarming levels of inaction,” says WHO Director General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.

Although the designation does not automatically trigger new funding or action, it serves as an indication that the virus runs rampant across continents.

People and pets in San Francisco on March 21. (Melina Mara/The Washington Post)

With the United States nearing 10,000 confirmed coronavirus cases, California becomes the first state to shut down, ordering its 40 million residents to stay home.

Some states follow suit, allowing residents to go outside only for essential activities such as grocery shopping, health care and exercise. Other states, citing economic concerns, avoid stay-at-home orders. They are to see some of the worst outbreaks.

The Coral Princess in Miami on April 4. (Joe Raedle/Getty Images)

With more than 300,000 cases confirmed worldwide, people are still packed into cruise ships. The Celebrity Eclipse and Coral Princess see devastating outbreaks almost two months after the Diamond Princess became one of the first vessels to experience one, off the coast of Japan.

South African forces patrol Johannesburg on March 30. (Marco Longari/AFP/Getty Images)

With much of Europe, the United States and Asia living under virus-related restrictions, South Africa imposes a national lockdown after becoming the first African country to confirm more than 1,000 cases of the virus.

President Cyril Ramaphosa sends army personnel across the country of 57 million people to enforce the measure, which bans all movement apart from grocery shopping, walking alone, collecting welfare grants and seeking health care. The shutdown would come to span months, becoming one of Africa’s strictest.

While the virus’s spread sparks concerns on a continent with health infrastructures more fragile than China’s and Europe’s, which buckled under pressure, life continues to look much like normal in many parts of the continent.

A TV cameraman at 11 Downing Street on March 27. (Tolga Akmen/AFP/Getty Images)

Appearing wan and disheveled, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson tweets a video confirming that he has tested positive for the virus. He recovers after becoming seriously ill, spending weeks out of commission and two days in intensive care.

His illness comes as Britain faces criticism for its handling of the pandemic. The country is plagued by testing shortages, and Johnson had taken a different approach to virus restrictions than some of his European neighbors, who were quick to impose harsh restrictions and shutdowns.

A street scene from Wuhan on March 30. (Roman Pilipey/EPA-EFE/Shutterstock)

In Wuhan, residents are just coming out of lockdown, with eyes unaccustomed to direct sunlight and legs unaccustomed to strolling. For 10 weeks, people had been confined largely to their apartments.

“I’ve been indoors for 70 days,” one woman who ventures to a shopping mall tells local television.

Life does not return to normal right away, but by summer, Wuhan is holding parties in packed water parks as the United States registers more than 40,000 new confirmed cases per day.

A woman passes a memorial on May 27 in New York City. (Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

The United States confirms it has lost 100,000 people to the virus. The landmark comes shortly after a holiday weekend that drew crowds of revelers to beaches and restaurants.

President Jair Bolsonaro in the Brazilian capital on July 22. (Evaristo Sa/AFP/Getty Images)

Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro, 65, said he tested positive for the coronavirus. Brazil trails only the United States in confirmed cases.

The right-wing populist leader has mounted a controversial response to the pandemic, even compared to that of the United States, where denialism and movements against control measures find support in the White House.

Bolsonaro has called the virus a “little flu” and refuses to implement restrictions, appearing at packed rallies without a mask and attending floating barbecue parties as the virus ravaged his country.

Pilgrims circle the Kaaba in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, on July 29. (AFP/Getty Images)

In a normal year, the annual Hajj pilgrimage to the Saudi cities of Mecca and Medina draws more than 2 million worshipers. This year, the pilgrimage is a sliver of the normal size, with the kingdom allowing only up to 1,000 Saudi residents to partake.

The Saudi government enforces health restrictions that make the pilgrimage all the more unusual: holy water is bottled instead of drawn from a communal well, stones to be symbolically hurled at the devil come pre-sanitized and worshipers wear masks as they walk around the Kaaba.

Across the world, the virus has forced the devout to adapt their practices — from virtual prayer services to sanitizing icons that are traditionally kissed.

A worker wears personal protective equipment. (Andrey Rudakov/Bloomberg News)

Russia becomes the first country to claim victory in the global vaccine race with Sputnik V, its approved but untested coronavirus vaccine, which Russian President Vladimir Putin says has been administered to his own daughter.

Putin says the country plans to roll out mass vaccinations in early fall. International health experts warn of a lack of transparent research. Less than two weeks later, China begins administering its own experimental vaccine for public use.

Neither drug has been tested to the standards of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines eventually cleared in the West.

The Mall in Washington on Sept. 22. (Amanda Voisard for The Washington Post)

From the first death recorded in January in China to 1 million deaths recorded worldwide in September, the virus has changed daily life in many countries and unleashed suffering worldwide.

President Trump leaves the White House in Marine One on Oct. 2. (Amanda Voisard for The Washington Post)

In a late-night tweet, President Trump confirms reports that he has tested positive for the virus. Trump has routinely played down the virus’s threat, holding indoor rallies, refusing to wear a mask in public and touting unproven treatments for the illness. He is a patient at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center before hitting the campaign trail about two weeks later.

The president’s diagnosis precedes a wider outbreak in the White House and in Washington conservative circles that is traced back to a Sept. 26 Rose Garden ceremony marking the nomination of Judge Amy Coney Barrett for the Supreme Court.

A pub closes in Cologne, Germany, on Oct. 31. (Andreas Rentz/Getty Images)

After a summer of tourism and relatively low case numbers, countries in Europe begin to see cold-weather spikes in infections. Belgium, France, Germany and Italy are among those to see record caseloads as hospitals begin to fill up.

Hesitant to reimpose the economically punishing lockdowns of March, leaders implement piecemeal restrictions targeting hotspots. But as infections continue to soar, many countries return to lockdowns.

Times Square on Nov. 9. (David Dee Delgado/Getty Images)

In the bleakness of winter, a glimmer on the horizon: Pharmaceutical companies around the world have been working under unprecedented pressure, with unprecedented access to resources, to produce a vaccine candidate.

Those efforts see their first major payoff when Pfizer and BioNTech announce that their vaccine candidate is more than 90 percent effective in initial trials.

Health officials hail the news. “The results are really quite good, I mean extraordinary,” says Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Days later, Moderna releases similarly promising trial results.

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, center, with British Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England Jonathan Van-Tam, left, and National Health Service chief Simon Stevens on Dec. 2. (John Sibley/AFP/Getty Images)

Britain announces it has approved for use the Pfizer vaccine, becoming the first country in the world to do so.

“We’ve been waiting and hoping for the day when the searchlights of science would pick out our invisible enemy and give us the power to stop that enemy from making us Ill. And now, the scientists have done it,” Johnson says.

Britain defends its swift approval processes even as the move draws some criticism from the United States and the European Union, who say their regulators are following more thorough processes.

The emergency department at St. Mary Medical Center in California on Dec. 14. (Michael S. Williamson/The Washington Post)

As case numbers and hospitalizations spike, residents in parts of Southern California and the Bay Area prepare for a second stay-at-home order that bars dining out and gathering with people outside one’s household.

Although the pandemic is worse in the United States than it ever has been, other states and cities decline to do the same. Some implement rules on indoor dining or gatherings, but nothing matching the restrictions of the spring.

Margaret Keenan, 90, is the first person to receive the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine at University Hospital in Coventry, England, on Dec. 8. (Jacob King/AFP/Getty Images)

Margaret Keenan, a 90-year-old British grandmother and retiree, makes history by becoming the first person to receive the Pfizer vaccine outside clinical trials. She’s followed by William Shakespeare, 81. The moment is seen as the beginning of the end of the coronavirus pandemic.

Less than a week later at a hospital in Queens, front-line nurse Sandra Lindsay is one of the first people in the United States to receive the vaccine.

But across the globe, other countries will be waiting, some for years, for their own vaccine supply. And that means the virus is not going anywhere for the foreseeable future.


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» California detects highly contagious COVID variant 31/12/20 13:43

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Nashville bombing at AT&T building exposed area communications network

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NASHVILLE, Tenn. – The vulnerability of the telecommunications system in Nashville and beyond became clear Christmas Day when AT&T’s central office in downtown became the site of a bombing.

Mayor John Cooper called the blast on Second Avenue an attack on infrastructure. The effects of that attack are sure to ripple through the region for weeks, as the telecom giant scrambles to restore services while maintaining the integrity of an active investigation site teeming with federal agents.

State and local officials and experts say the fact that a multistate region could be brought to its knees by a single bombing is a “wake-up call,” exposing vulnerabilities many didn’t know existed and predicting it would lead to intense conversations about the future. 

The bombing and the damage to the AT&T office was a “single-point of failure,” said Douglas Schmidt, the Cornelius Vanderbilt professor of computer science at Vanderbilt University. 

“That’s the Achilles’ heel. The weak link,” he said. “When one thing goes wrong and everything comes crashing down.” 

Now, the Tennessee Emergency Communications Board has called a special meeting for next week to address the “impact to 911 operations as a result of the bombing in downtown Nashville,” according to a public notice of the meeting set for Monday.

Crews hustle for heat:Vandalism leaves 3,500 customers without heat or hot water amid freezing temperatures in Colorado

While still piecing together a motive, investigators Monday said suspected bomber Anthony Quinn Warner sought “more destruction than death.”

He parked an RV outside the nondescript windowless red-brick building on the historic district, which houses a facility that includes connection points for regional internet and wireless communications. 

Flames broke out in the building and 3 feet of water pooled in the basement. Temporary battery power kept services intact in the hours following the explosion, but fire and flooding damaged backup power generators to power those batteries.

The disruption brought communications in the region, from Georgia to Kentucky, to a halt, affecting 911 call centers, hospitals, the Nashville airport, government offices and individual mobile users. Issues with credit card devices hamstrung businesses big and small. 

TBI director:Nashville bomber Anthony Q. Warner’s motive appears linked to ‘more destruction than death’

AT&T reported Monday morning that the majority of services in Nashville had been restored through a combination of fixes, including generator repairs and a temporary network set up at Nissan Stadium.

“Having a critical facility in a major metropolitan area next to a street without any other protections than a thick wall is crazy,” Schmidt said.

“The silver lining here is nobody was killed,” he said. “But this is a wake up call that, if people treat it right, will help with future situations and be better prepared.” 

‘Our systems are not redundant enough’

When the situation settles down, state Sen. Paul Bailey, R-Sparta, who most recently served as chairman of the Senate commerce committee, hopes the Tennessee legislature can hear from AT&T representatives about what type of plan they’re implementing to prevent this type of outcome if another similar disaster occurs.

“They need to have better redundancies in place,” Bailey said, referring to AT&T’s backup systems to prevent widespread outages. “It’s just very concerning that we have 911 centers go down. Lots of emergency services losing communications. That’s really concerning to me.”

Nashville Metro Council member Freddie O’Connell, who represents the downtown area, said the city must also follow up on how to create more redundancy in critical communication systems in the aftermath of the bombing.

“How does a city as a whole function if we go through something like this again or a natural disaster?” he said. “We learned our systems are not redundant enough when one major provider goes offline.” 

Police officers on the scene Friday were issued burner phones, according to Metro police spokesperson Don Aaron. Nashville’s police department uses FirstNet network, a priority network for first responders to use on existing AT&T cell towers for voice and data.

Nashville’s 911 line remained operational but officials were without access to administrative phone lines through Friday evening, according to Stephen Martini, director of the Nashville Department of Emergency Communications. 

In the absence of non-emergency phone lines, residents were encouraged to request services through hubNashville online, which officials monitored for a three-day period. 

Martini said communications to emergency personnel via radio was never impacted over the weekend.

He declined to share details on how the department remained operational, citing sensitive public safety information, but said a redundancy plan, dubbed the PACE method (Primary, Alternate, Contingent, Emergency), was in place. 

Nashville’s director of information and technology services, Keith Durbin, said Verizon phones had to be driven to some staff on Christmas Day. 

“This was one of the worst case scenarios that happened,” Durbin said. “… To have (AT&T)completely taken out … was even broader impact than we thought.” 

Luckily, he said, none of the city’s “internal network backbone” was affected, with issues primarily coming from smaller Metro facilities. Some were continuing to experience issues Monday, including the Davidson County Clerk’s office. 

The city was able to switch from AT&T to a secondary internet carrier Friday. But the city doesn’t have a backup for phone services. It’s something officials have considered in recent years. 

Those talks, Durbin said, will be revived after the bombing. He said he’s confident it’ll now get wide support.

Bailey said he heard from 911 center directors in his district reporting outages nearly 100 miles away from Nashville. Residents in the area received reverse emergency calls to inform them not to dial 911, but instead to use another phone number to get in touch with dispatchers.

And then there were the retail stores, pharmacies, businesses and hospitals that were impacted, he said.

He credits AT&T for working quickly to restore service. But he said it’s concerning that one incident could wipe out so much of the region’s communications capability.

“This affected our entire Southeast region,” Bailey said. “There were multiple states that had issues because of this.”

But as for whether the Tennessee General Assembly wields much power to compel action from AT&T,  “the short answer is no, we don’t,” Bailey said.

The state’s Public Utility Commission, a five-member board consisting of political appointees, also has limited ability to regulate for-profit communications companies. Much of that would be a federal issue, Bailey noted.

State and hospitals face outages

The city wasn’t alone in experiencing communication outages. 

The Tennessee General Assembly, which has offices adjoining the Capitol downtown, also  had outages over the weekend. The email system was down for a portion of the day Saturday, and staff were told to work from home Monday after the building experienced phone outages until Sunday evening.

State government office buildings remained closed Monday due to safety hazards that the outages continued to pose, said Lola Potter, spokesperson for the Department of Finance and Administration.

Fire and safety alarm systems in state buildings in Nashville still weren’t fully functioning.

Other state services were impacted over the weekend, though state employees found workarounds and alerted authorities in some situations, such as with reporting child abuse.

“Obviously we were concerned about it, but we took precautions by reaching out to law enforcement,” said Jennifer Donnals, chief of staff for the Department of Children’s Services.

A state web form and app that field child abuse reports remained in service, Donnals said, and staff in different regions also alerted major children’s hospitals around the state to the hotline being down.

The timing of the disruptions occurring on a weekend – and a holiday weekend at that – meant the agency would likely have been receiving fewer complaints than on weekdays anyway.

Meanwhile, hospitals in the region have also had to work around outages since the weekend, mostly stemming from their landline phone systems going down and being unable to receiving incoming calls.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center reported it was back in service by late Monday afternoon, while TriStar Centennial Medical Center was experiencing some intermittent outages.

Both hospitals had to set up new, temporary phone numbers for people to call, according to spokespeople for both hospital systems

Health records and other IT infrastructure needed to care for patients were not affected at Vanderbilt, nor were employees’ ability to make internal calls within the hospital.

There were remaining limitations to flight corridors in and out of the Nashville International Airport on Monday, but it did not have a significant impact on flight departures and arrivals, according to Tom Jurkovich, vice president of communications and public affairs for the airport. 

Flights were grounded at Nashville Airport on Christmas afternoon due to telecommunication issues stemming from the explosion. Jurkovich estimated up to 45 of 116 flights scheduled for departure that day were delayed. 

Follow reporters Yihyun Jeong and Natalie Allison on Twitter: @yihyun_jeong@natalie_allison

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Nashville Bombing and Anthony Warner: What to Know

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NASHVILLE — On Christmas morning, an R.V. exploded in downtown Nashville, injuring three people and disrupting telecommunications across the region. The authorities say the bomber, identified as Anthony Quinn Warner, died in the explosion. Here’s what else we know:

The authorities received a tip last year that the bomber was building explosives.

A girlfriend of the man accused of setting off the bomb had called the police more than a year ago, claiming that he was building explosives in the R.V. parked there, according to a police incident report.

The woman’s lawyer told the authorities that Mr. Warner “frequently talks about the military and bomb making.”

The officers knocked on Mr. Warner’s door but “did not receive an answer,” according to the report, which was obtained Tuesday night by The New York Times. It was first reported by The Tennessean and WTVF-TV, a Nashville station. The R.V., which has been identified by state and federal officials as the one that exploded in downtown Nashville, was parked behind a fence. Officers wrote that they observed “several security cameras and wires attached to an alarm sign on the front door.”

A spokesman for the Police Department, Don Aaron, said in a statement that the police “saw no evidence of a crime and had no authority to enter his home or fenced property.” The girlfriend’s lawyer also represented Mr. Warner, according to the police, and told officers later that he would “not allow his client to permit a visual inspection of the R.V.”

Efforts on Tuesday night to reach the lawyer were unsuccessful.

The report, dated Aug. 21, 2019, noted that the officers who responded to the call had notified their superiors within the Police Department. Mr. Aaron said that the police had forwarded the incident report and Mr. Warner’s information to the F.B.I., which said on Tuesday that it and the Defense Department found no records on Mr. Warner after receiving a request from the police on Aug. 22.

Officials continue to look for motives behind the explosion.

DNA tests conducted on human remains found in the wreckage of the Christmas Day bombing in Nashville matched the 63-year-old man who had been identified as a person of interest in the investigation, law enforcement officials said on Sunday.

“Anthony Warner is the bomber,” Donald Q. Cochran, the U.S. attorney for the Middle District of Tennessee, said at a news conference on Sunday afternoon. “He was present when the bomb went off and he perished in the bombing.”

Law enforcement officials said that there were no indications of anyone else being involved in the bombing, and the investigation continued into possible motives behind it. The sprawling inquiry has included hundreds of federal agents and officers pursuing more than 500 leads since Friday.

Federal agents searched a home on Saturday belonging to Mr. Warner in Antioch, Tenn., roughly 11 miles from the site of the blast. Images of the same building from March and May 2019, captured on Google Street View, show an R.V. in the yard that appears similar to the one that the police say was detonated.

Investigators found that Mr. Warner had recently given away a car he owned and told someone close to him that he had cancer, the official said, though it was not clear whether he truly did have cancer. Financial records show that Mr. Warner purchased components that may have been used in the bomb, the official said.

Mr. Warner’s employment history includes experience working with electronics, as an information technology specialist for Nashville-area businesses. Steve Fridrich, the president of one of those businesses, said that Mr. Warner sent an email to the firm on Dec. 5 saying that he was retiring.

Mr. Warner also had a burglar-alarm business that was registered in Tennessee from 1993 to 1998, according to state records.

The police released a photograph of the R.V., saying it was driven to the curb in front of an AT&T transmission building on Second Avenue North in Nashville at 1:22 a.m. on Friday. The image shows the vehicle moving through downtown with its headlights on, the white camper illuminated by streetlights and glowing storefronts.

A Nashville police officer came upon the vehicle several hours later. He was responding to reports of gunfire. Instead, he found the R.V., with a speaker warning that a bomb was inside and that it was about to detonate.

The concussion from the explosion caused at least one building to collapse, and damaged dozens of others, blowing out windows and doors and flinging debris that was found several blocks away. The explosion also led to fires, flooding and power outages, cutting off cellphone and internet services to homes and business across the region. Three people were injured.

There was a warning before the explosion.

Before the explosion, Betsy Williams said she heard what she thought were gunshots early on Friday, then she noticed the R.V. parked across the street from her apartment.

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“It started playing this message,” she recalled. “‘Evacuate now. This vehicle has a bomb and will explode. Evacuate now.’”

When the voice began the countdown, Ms. Williams said, she and her family abandoned their apartment and rushed to safety.

“It’s not like bad weather or a fire, or something like that,” she said. “You’re going, ‘OK, is this for real?’ Well, it was.”

Police officers on the scene called for a bomb squad, but it was too late. The R.V. exploded around 6:30 a.m. Ms. Williams watched the blast from afar.

Much remains unknown.

It is not clear whether the AT&T transmission building on Second Avenue North was an intended target of the explosion. The building is a few blocks from the phone company’s landmark office tower in the city.

The site of the explosion is in a stretch of downtown with honky-tonks, restaurants and other tourist destinations, including a Hard Rock Cafe, the Redneck Riviera bar and barbecue, and the Honky Tonk bus tour company.

The authorities said the explosion could have done much more harm had it happened at night, or on an ordinary day, when the sidewalks might have been filled with people.

The destruction caused AT&T outages and halted flights.

The consequences of the blast were far-reaching.

Shattered glass and bricks were strewn about downtown. Trees were charred by the explosion’s flames, and broken water mains were spewing water.

The explosion damaged the AT&T building, causing widespread service outages that continued on Saturday. The explosion affected some cell service across parts of Tennessee, Kentucky and Alabama, and hindered the communication of 20 or more 911 call centers, Mr. Lee, the governor, said.

AT&T said on Sunday that its crews had been able to make considerable progress, restoring electricity to four floors of the building and pumping out three feet of water in the basement. The company had brought in a portable cell site to help return some service and had more crews heading into Nashville.

The Federal Aviation Administration temporarily halted flights out of the Nashville International Airport because of telecommunications issues caused by the blast. The F.A.A. also labeled the skies within about one mile of the explosion “national defense airspace,” meaning pilots are prohibited from flying overhead without special authorization.

To those who felt the blast, its widespread effects are not surprising.

“The whole neighborhood shook,” said Lily Hansen, who was sitting on a couch in her second-floor apartment a few blocks away. “It looked like something you would see in a horror movie. I just can’t get the image out of my head.”

Buck McCoy, who lives less than a block from the site of the explosion, said his home was destroyed.

“It just ripped my entire apartment apart,” he said. “There wasn’t one part of the house that wasn’t shook.”

The six officers who evacuated the scene are being praised for saving lives.

The images of the six officers from the Nashville Police Department have spread widely around Nashville on television and social media; they are held up as heroes for swooping into action as an explosion tore through the quiet of Christmas morning.

On Sunday, the officers spoke publicly about the experience for the first time.

In an emotional news conference, five of the officers recounted a speaker on the R.V. that contained the bomb blaring a warning and the song “Downtown” with its lyrics about the bright lights and excitement of city life. They described rushing into buildings and rousting residents — “scaring the bejesus” out of at least one of them.

Then, there was a burst of orange and the officers remembered temporarily losing their hearing from the concussion of the blast. They remembered searching for their colleagues afterward, worried they had been hurt or killed, and then feeling grateful that they and others in the neighborhood had survived.

“That was God,” Officer James Wells said. “I’m not going to shy away from that.”

Officer James Luellen was the first to arrive on Friday morning. He was responding to reports of gunfire. Instead, he found the R.V., with a speaker warning that a bomb was inside and that it was about to detonate.

He called for backup.

Five other officers quickly followed: Brenna Hosey, Michael Sipos, Amanda Topping, Officer Wells and Sgt. Timothy Miller. Other than Sergeant Miller, an 11-year veteran, none of the others had been with the Police Department for longer than four years.

Six police officers who knocked on doors and shouted instructions to evacuate to people who lived around the R.V. before it exploded were being heralded on Saturday for saving lives.

“I think they may consider what they did a regular part of their duties,” the city’s mayor, John Cooper, said as he stood beside the officers at a news conference on Sunday. “But we in Nashville know it was extraordinary.”

Among the officers were two women and four men with a range of experience; one officer had been with the department for only 16 months. Chief Drake credited them all.

“These officers didn’t care about themselves — they didn’t think about that,” the chief said on Friday. “They cared about the citizens of Nashville.”

Reporting was contributed by Katie Benner, Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs, Steve Cavendish, Adam Goldman, Giulia McDonnell Nieto del Rio, Jamie McGee and Lucy Tompkins. Alain Delaquérière contributed research.


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Interpretation of the Crime Message in Nashville Tennessee bombing of December 2020: TOC – Russian Jewish Mob sends “message crimes” to America (e.g. “Nash Ville, Te nne ssee” – “This Village is ours, do not pee – do not be afraid”, etc.), FBI is helpless and hopeless.

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Post Link – 4:20 AM 12/31/2020

Interpretation of the Crime Message in Nashville Tennessee bombing of December 2020(As translated from the Russian): 


“ATT”: “Hello, this is the message” … “ATT: Hey, Ti and Ti”: “Hey, you and you”:

Anthony Quinn Warner: “Un-Tony Queen Warner (to warn), Nash Ville, Te nne ssi” … 

https://twitter.com/CNN/status/1344206870127538177

TOCRussian Jewish Mob sends “criminal messages” to America (e.g. “Nash Ville, Te nne ssee – Ti ne ssi” – “This Village is ours, do not pee – do not be afraid”, etc.); FBI is helpless and hopeless. FBI is not willing and is not able to understand these crime messages and their facetious humor, and it is not able to admit that these are indeed the intended Crime Messages. Because the FBI is incredibly, unbelievably stupid and dysfunctional

Abolish the FBI! Their main, notorious and blatantly anti-American specialty is the nauseating COINTELPRO, borrowed from the KGB and Gestapo

Reform the US Intelligence and Law Enforcement Services – their failures cannot be more obvious. The risks are mortally high. 

Michael Novakhov

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Interpretation of the Crime Message in Nashville Tennessee bombing of December 2020: TOC – Russian Jewish Mob sends “message crimes” to America (e.g. “Nash Ville, Te nne ssee” – “This Village is ours, do not pee – do not be afraid”, etc.), FBI is helpless and hopeless.

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Post Link – 4:20 AM 12/31/2020

Interpretation of the Crime Message in Nashville Tennessee bombing of December 2020

(As translated from the Russian)

“ATT”: “Hello, this is the message” … “ATT: Hey, Ti and Ti”: “Hey, you and you”:

Anthony Quinn Warner: “Un-Tony Queen Warner (to warn), Nash Ville, Te nne ssi” … 

TOC – Russian Jewish Mob sends “message crimes” to America (e.g. “Nash Ville, Te nne ssee” – “This Village is ours, do not pee – do not be afraid”, etc.), FBI is helpless and hopeless. 

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2:20 PM 12/30/2020 – » Small number of COVID-19 survivors suffering from psychotic episodes

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News Reviews - The News And Times
News Reviews – The News And Times

 2:20 PM 12/30/2020

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